In this post I will explain how to connect solar panels, in series, in parallel or in series-parallel.. One question that arises for our clients when installing a solar kit is how they should wire the panels. It is a very important question to know how they should be wired to obtain the design voltage of the installation. We talk in this article about how to connect my solar panels .
How to connect my solar panels
Depending on the connection mode, it can be: series, parallel or a combination of series and parallel.
How to connect my solar panels: Connect solar panels in parallel
We have to connect all the positives, and on the other hand all the negatives. In this way, the voltage obtained (volts) is that of the solar panel, and the intensity (amps) that will run through the line that comes down from the panels will be the sum of all the intensities of each panel.
For example, if we connect 4 solar panels of 190Wp 24V (Vmp=37.08V) 5A in parallel, it will result in a photovoltaic field of 760Wp with an intensity in amps that will drop from the photovoltaic field measured under standard conditions of 20A at a voltage 24V.
To make this connection between two boards, it is recommended to use the MC4 branch connector, to make the connection watertight and safe. This will ensure a safe electrical connection against inclement weather.
How to connect my solar panels: Connect the solar panels in series.
We have to connect the positive of one solar panel to the negative of the next panel and so on. In this way the voltage will be the sum of the voltages of all connected panels and the intensity will not be modified.
For example, if we connect 2 solar panels of 140Wp 12V (Vmp=18.08V) 7.66A in series, we will have as a result a photovoltaic field of 280Wp at a voltage of 24V and with an intensity measured in standard conditions of 7.66A.
This type of connection is very common, also if we use MPPT regulators these allow higher input voltages of the photovoltaic field (100V or 150V maximum voltage in open circuit) than those of the battery. Therefore, if we use MPPT regulators, it allows us to connect panels to a higher voltage than the batteries, the number of serial panels that can be connected will depend on the type of MPPT chosen. In addition, this type of regulators manage to get more than 20% more production from the panels.
We remember that if we use PWM regulators , we can only use 36-cell or 72-cell panels, for panel connection voltages of 12V, 24V or 48V. Panels of 60 cells cannot be used with this type of regulator.
How to connect my solar panels: Connection of solar panels in series-parallel.
Also, on many occasions it is necessary to mix the two types of connections in order to achieve the ideal intensity and voltage for the system. With this system, both the voltage and the intensity of the system are increased.
For example, we need to connect 4 solar panels 260Wp 60 cells 30.3Vmp (maximum power voltage) 8.58A, to an EPSOLAR TRACER 4210A MPPT maximizer regulator , we need to connect 2 groups of 2 panels in series and these two groups between them in parallel . With this system we will achieve a voltage of 60.6Vmp and an intensity of 17.16A.
Another example: we need to connect 6 260Wp panels to a Victron BlueSolar 150/60 MPPT maximizer, we need to connect two groups of 3 panels in series and between these two groups in parallel. Thus, we will get 90.9V and an intensity of 17.16A.
These are the different ways to connect solar panels to each other.