The installation of solar panels is a delicate task that if you have the possibility of entrusting this task to a specialist is what is indicated, but if you want to know how the process is or want to carry out the installation yourself, I leave you a step-by-step guide of all this process.
Installation of solar panels step by step
The installation of photovoltaic panels must always be carried out by a specialized company with experience in this type of installation . A process that must be taken care of from start to finish, in addition to having a subsequent maintenance and that consists of various stages:
- Assembly of the plate supports.
- Cover fixing.
- Fixing of solar panels.
- Connection of the system with the inverter.
- Connection of the inverter to the electrical panel.
- Connection of the batteries in the case of isolated installations.
In addition, it is necessary to strictly comply with the guidelines and regulations on electrical, urban planning and health and safety matters . To do this, it is necessary to have various protections at all times, both those that refer to the height and location in which you work, and those related to the electrical risks associated with the assembly of the installation.
Before carrying out any type of self-consumption installation, we must take into account the following factors:
- The dimensions of the house and the roof , as well as its orientation, inclination and type of house.
- Current electricity consumption and contracted power and a projection of future needs.
The installation of solar panels is a meticulous process that consists of several stages and that must be carried out with great care to guarantee the correct operation of the installation.
We must therefore rely on an installation company . This company has to take care of requesting the corresponding permits and informing the client about possible aid and subsidies.
Stages prior to the installation of solar panels for self-consumption
Before starting any solar panel installation work, a series of factors must be considered:
- In the first place, we must obtain a photovoltaic installation proposal based on the possibilities of the home, as well as its consumption, using, for example, the simulator or sending an electricity bill .
- Second, the energy company will make a specific proposal tailored to your circumstances.
- Third, POWEN will be in charge of carrying out all the procedures and licenses necessary to obtain the installation permits in the corresponding town hall .
Once all these previous steps have been carried out, we can start with the photovoltaic installation on the roof of our home or building.
First step: Assembly of the supports of the photovoltaic installation
Before positioning the solar panels on the roof of the house or building, the supports for them must be placed . Depending on the type and slope of the roof of the house, we must use one type of structure or another .
For example, the supports cannot be the same on a roof where the modules are placed coplanar to it, as on a flat roof where the modules must be tilted to obtain greater energy efficiency.
Second step: Fixing the structure and panels to the roof
Once the place where the structure will be placed on the roof has been decided, it must be fixed to it and the solar panels positioned on it. Depending on the type of inclination of the same, this process is carried out in different ways.
The most common thing in our country is that the roof is inclined between 20º and 35º, which favors the performance of the installation , and with Arabica-type tiles. The anchorage of the support structure varies depending on the roof on which it is anchored.
Once the structure is anchored on the roof of the house, the modules are placed and fixed to it, connected to each other to later connect to the inverter.
Third step: Connection to the electrical inverter
The panels are connected in series between the modules in the same row and in parallel to connect the rows to each other . This is done using so-called MC4 connectors to connect the modules in parallel, or directly to the inverter.
It is important that the connection is strong because if it is not, this will negatively affect the overall performance of the installation. The total electrical generation of the module system is conducted to the same point, to thus reach the inverter.
Next, a connection is made to conduct all the energy collected by each panel through solar radiation in the form of electric current to the inverter , which is located at a point close to the electrical panel of the house.
The inverter must be protected from the sun’s rays, so its location inside the home is recommended . Thanks to the inverter, the electricity it receives in the form of direct current is converted into alternating current, which is what is used on a day-to-day basis.
Fourth step: Battery connection
If we have decided to store the energy that is generated, we must finally make an optimal connection of the batteries . For this, it is necessary to have a hybrid inverter that is capable of managing the charging and discharging of the batteries , since they are the most expensive and delicate element of the system.
The connection of the batteries can be done in parallel, in series or in series and in parallel, always with the same batteries. With parallel connections, the capacity of the batteries is doubled while maintaining the same voltage.
With the series connection, the capacity of the batteries is maintained, but the voltage is doubled. And finally, if you opt for a series and parallel connection, both the capacity and the voltage will double.