The solar panels They play a fundamental role in the energy saving and efficiency. In this sense, the solar inverter It is one of the most important components, since it allows the energy of these facilities to be used appropriately. But, how does it work and what would happen if there is one inverter overload and how it would affect its performance.
Inverter overload: why it happens
In this post We explain all the details about its operation and which one is the most suitable according to the solar installation. The main function is to convert direct current into alternating current. Most of the consumption is made in alternating, but there are systems, for example lighting that can work in continuous.
What is a solar inverter?
The solar inverter It is a current converter that transforms the energy of the solar panels into usable energy for daily consumption. Therefore, it will be concerned with optimizing photovoltaic production and achieving maximum performance from photovoltaic panels.
The installations with connection to the network They must have a solar inverter that allows regulating the frequency and wavelength of the energy to the characteristics of the network. Normally, solar inverters use a consumption of 220 to 230 v. And, although there are several types and models on the market, the most normal is to use modified wave or pure sine wave.
How does the solar inverter work?
The conversion of the current to alternating current is carried out through electronic components that produce the variation of the phase angle. The inverter is responsible for modifying the current signal in direct through the power stages. Generating a pure sinusoidal wave that maintains the voltage and frequency characteristics of the wave that comes from the reference electrical network.
If it is characterized by something, it is by its protection capacity, since they must be able to stop production in the event of a network failure or short circuit. Therefore, the inverter must optimize solar production regardless of the type of panel. It is called anti-islanding protection, it is carried out to prevent that in the event of a network failure, if the inverter continues to generate energy maintaining the interconnection, this will cause a distortion between the distribution network signal and the wave generated by the investor.
Solar panels are made up of photovoltaic cells that react when they receive sunlight, for this reason, the role of the inverter is key to taking advantage of useful energy. Since most houses use alternating current, the type of energy produced by a photovoltaic panel would not work for a conventional home. For this reason, transformation is so necessary.
Main characteristics of solar inverters
Before making the choice of the inverter, it is necessary to know the energy consumption and make a list of the electrical devices that will use it. Depending on the result, it will be possible to assess whether a larger or smaller installation is needed.
It is necessary to know the consumption profile of the installation to be supplied to select the appropriate nominal power range of the inverter, as well as whether the installation is single-phase or three-phase.
As we have verified, the solar inverters They play a very relevant role in the installation of photovoltaic panels. But, we must know each of its characteristics to know why they are so important.
- Its main mission is the energy transformation that allows the operation of electrical consumption with the energy that comes from the sun.
- Another key aspect is the optimization of energy production to obtain the best performance of the photovoltaic field.
- The protection equipment They will guarantee the correct operation of the installation and protect the rest of the electrical installation if a fault occurs.
- Finally, the importance of the monitoring, since it allows predictive maintenance by detecting possible drops in performance. In addition to making it possible to analyze the generation profile.
Why does inverter overload occur?
The solar panel installation It should be done taking into account the capacity and shade. Obviously, each inverter has a defined capacity, so it can be 100% loaded or underloaded to a greater or lesser extent. What does this mean?
Simply that when an inverter is overloaded with the minimum capacity, the panels work at their maximum and no production is lost. Meanwhile, if there is overload, the inverter will heat up and its operation will stop. This will not only reduce its useful life, but it will also alter solar production. Therefore, it is recommended to overload the inverter to a maximum of 30%.
If the inverter has adequate protection, it will be able to detect faults both at the input and at the output. This will allow warning of a possible overload. Some models even switch off automatically if an excess temperature is perceived or some type of failure that poses a threat or risk is detected.
Types of solar inverters
Currently, there are a large number of alternatives and solar inverters when it comes to carrying out a photovoltaic installation and avoiding inverter overload. What type of inverter is the most suitable for self-consumption of energy? Actually, if the consumption is residential, you can opt for the investors string either in chain; the microinverters and the power optimizers.
While the MLPE technologies (microinverters and power optimizers) are much more expensive because they have more electronic equipment. However, if the covers are complicated or the installation is affected by shadows, this option is the best solution.
It is clear that the primary function of an investor is transform energy to employ solar production in daily use. But, it will be necessary to previously study the installed power and the electrical configuration according to the purpose of the system to be installed.
Also, it should be noted that manufacturers are worrying about implementing intelligent modules. These are the result of the integration of power optimizers and microinverters in solar panels. Without a doubt, the advantages of modular inverters they are quite a few if we take into account the installation process and cost.
Likewise, there are inverters for installations isolated or disconnected from the electrical network that work in a similar way to the previous ones. The main difference lies in the possibility of generating your own network according to the regulations that regulate it.