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low sun angles result in reduced solar energy because

Low angles of the sun cause a reduction in solar energy because the highest efficiency of solar panels, that is, the highest production of electricity is produced when the sun’s rays are perpendicular to the solar panels.

Effect of the decrease in heat resulting from the inclination of solar rays in winter

Latitude determines the inclination with which the sun’s rays fall and the difference in the length of day and night. The more directly the solar radiation hits, the more heat it contributes to the Earth. The variations of the insolation that the terrestrial surface receives are due to the movements of rotation (daily variations) and translation (seasonal variations). Variations in latitude are actually caused by the tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation. The angle of incidence of the Sun’s rays is not the same in summer as in winter, being the main cause of seasonal differences.

When the sun’s rays hit with a greater inclination, they heat up much less, because the atmospheric heat has to be distributed over a much greater thickness of the atmosphere, thereby filtering and dispersing part of that heat. A greater inclination in the sun’s rays causes them to have to pass through a greater amount of atmosphere, attenuating more than if they incident more perpendicularly. On the other hand, the greater the inclination, the greater the horizontal component of the radiation intensity.

Thus, the sun’s rays fall with a greater inclination during the winter, so they heat less in this season. We can also refer to the daily variation of the inclination of the sun’s rays: the coldest atmospheric temperatures occur at dawn and the highest, in the afternoon. • The photograph is of Niagara Falls, frozen (USA)