Low Sun Angles: The Impact on Solar Energy Generation

Solar energy has emerged as a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution for meeting our ever-growing energy needs. Harnessing the power of the sun’s rays to generate electricity has gained significant popularity in recent years. However, one crucial factor that affects the efficiency and output of solar energy systems is the angle at which sunlight reaches the Earth’s surface. In this article, we will explore how low sun angles can cause a reduction in solar energy production and discuss potential solutions to mitigate this issue.

Understanding the Role of Sun Angles in Solar Energy Generation

The angle at which sunlight strikes a solar panel plays a vital role in determining its efficiency. When the sun is positioned directly overhead, the rays are perpendicular to the surface of the solar panels, maximizing the energy absorbed. However, as the sun’s angle decreases, such as during early morning or late afternoon, the sunlight travels through a larger section of the Earth’s atmosphere, resulting in reduced energy absorption.

Factors Contributing to Reduced Solar Energy Production

  1. Seasonal Variations: During certain seasons, such as winter, the Earth’s axial tilt causes the sun to be lower on the horizon, resulting in lower sun angles throughout the day. Consequently, solar panels receive sunlight at a more oblique angle, reducing the intensity of solar radiation and subsequently diminishing energy output.
  2. Latitude: Locations closer to the Earth’s poles experience lower sun angles for a significant portion of the year. As a result, regions with higher latitudes face reduced solar energy generation potential due to the oblique angle at which sunlight reaches the Earth’s surface.
  3. Time of Day: In the early morning and late afternoon, the sun’s position is relatively lower, leading to low sun angles. The reduced intensity of sunlight during these periods can hinder the optimal functioning of solar panels, resulting in a decreased generation of solar energy.

Overcoming the Challenges of Low Sun Angles

  1. Solar Tracking Systems: Implementing solar tracking systems can help overcome the limitations posed by low sun angles. These systems automatically adjust the position of solar panels to track the sun’s movement throughout the day. By optimizing the angle of incidence, solar tracking systems enhance energy absorption and maximize solar energy generation.
  2. Tilted Mounting Systems: By tilting solar panels at an optimal angle depending on the location and season, the impact of low sun angles can be mitigated. Tilted mounting systems allow solar panels to capture sunlight more directly, increasing their overall efficiency.
  3. Location Selection: When planning a solar energy installation, it is crucial to consider the geographical location and its solar resource potential. Areas with higher solar irradiance and fewer instances of low sun angles are more favorable for maximizing solar energy generation.

Effect of the decrease in heat resulting from the inclination of solar rays in winter

Latitude determines the inclination with which the sun’s rays fall and the difference in the length of day and night. The more directly the solar radiation hits, the more heat it contributes to the Earth. The variations of the insolation that the terrestrial surface receives are due to the movements of rotation (daily variations) and translation (seasonal variations). Variations in latitude are actually caused by the tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation. The angle of incidence of the Sun’s rays is not the same in summer as in winter, being the main cause of seasonal differences.

When the sun’s rays hit with a greater inclination, they heat up much less, because the atmospheric heat has to be distributed over a much greater thickness of the atmosphere, thereby filtering and dispersing part of that heat. A greater inclination in the sun’s rays causes them to have to pass through a greater amount of atmosphere, attenuating more than if they incident more perpendicularly. On the other hand, the greater the inclination, the greater the horizontal component of the radiation intensity.

Thus, the sun’s rays fall with a greater inclination during the winter, so they heat less in this season. We can also refer to the daily variation of the inclination of the sun’s rays: the coldest atmospheric temperatures occur at dawn and the highest, in the afternoon. • The photograph is of Niagara Falls, frozen (USA)


Low sun angles can pose a challenge to solar energy generation by reducing the efficiency and output of solar panels. Seasonal variations, latitude, and the time of day all contribute to this reduction. However, by employing innovative solutions such as solar tracking systems, tilted mounting systems, and careful location selection, we can overcome these challenges and optimize the generation of solar energy. With continuous advancements in technology and an increasing focus on renewable energy sources, the impact of low sun angles on solar energy production can be effectively minimized, paving the way for a sustainable and cleaner future.


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