Los paneles solares se fabrican de diferentes maneras y distintos materiales por cual existen muchos tipos de paneles solares y algunos tipos de paneles solares mas eficientes que otros
Types of solar panels that transform sunlight into energy
Not all solar panels are the same or offer the same benefits . Depending on our needs, the type of property and the final result we want to obtain, we must choose between one solar panel or another.
The classification of solar panels is therefore based on the main uses that we give them : generate electricity, heat water or both.
Depending on their purpose, the main types of solar panels are divided into:
- Photovoltaic solar panels.
- Thermal solar panels.
- Hybrid solar panels: Photovoltaic + thermal.
Let’s see each type of solar panel in detail below to check in this way which is the one that may interest us the most depending on the needs and characteristics of the property in which we want to install it.
Photovoltaic solar panels
This panel is responsible for transforming the energy from the sun into electricity .
They are made up of silicon photovoltaic cells that, through a process, transform the energy from sunlight into electrical energy.
This occurs when photons (particles present in sunlight) hit the silicon that the solar panel is made of. When the photons hit the silicon atoms, the electrons are broken and some of them are released, which are the ones that generate the electric current.
We can classify photovoltaic solar panels based on how the photovoltaic cells are composed :
- Monocrystalline Panels: Very useful for places where there is little sun exposure during the day because they offer very good performance in low light conditions.
- Polycrystalline Panels: Although they are less efficient than monocrystalline panels, they were the most widespread in the residential field.
The difference between a monocrystalline and a polycrystalline panel lies in its transformation process, by which the silicon ingots obtained are cylindrical to obtain monocrystalline silicon, or square to obtain polycrystalline silicon.
thermal solar panels
The thermal solar panel , solar collector or thermosyphon allows the transformation of energy from the sun into thermal energy, that is, into heat .
They are used to heat water, and can be used in multiple cases, such as heating, swimming pool heating, domestic hot water (the water we obtain through the boiler in a home), steam creation, among others.
There are also various types of solar thermal panels :
- Low temperature collector or unprotected flat solar collector. It reaches up to a maximum of 50ºC. They are mainly used for heating and domestic hot water.
- Medium temperature collector. They incorporate a transparent cover that prevents heat loss from the solar panel and thanks to it, the panel can reach up to 90ºC.
- High temperature collector . Add another cover between the previous one and the converter, generating a vacuum between the two covers so that a temperature of up to 150ºC can be reached. These types of solar thermal panels are commonly used to produce steam that drives turbines to generate electricity.
Thermal solar panels can also be divided into:
- Flat collectors: Low, medium and high temperature. The former are capable of heating up to a maximum of 50 degrees centigrade, the medium temperature ones up to 90 degrees and the high temperature ones up to 150 degrees centigrade.
- Vacuum tube collectors .
The difference between these two types is that flat collectors resemble photovoltaic panels in terms of their appearance, while vacuum tube collectors have a cylindrical shape and are always placed in parallel.
hybrid solar panels
These panels are the result of joining the two previous panels. It is a mixture of a photovoltaic panel and a thermal panel that combines the two technologies in a single panel. Through these panels we can produce electricity and heat simultaneously.
The main advantage of these panels is the reduction of the space needed to take advantage of solar energy by combining two panels into one.
Hybrid solar panels are divided into:
- Generation 0 panels.
- First generation panels.
- Second generation panels.
Generation 0 hybrid panels were the first to be manufactured and the temperature they reach is low since they do not have any type of insulation, which causes heat to be lost.
The first generation hybrid solar panels have a back cover that allows them to retain heat. And the second generation plates, which are the most modern, also offer a transparent front cover.