Este articulo esta dedicado para explicar what are the most efficient solar panels, la eficiencia del panel es una de las variables mas importantes a la hora de elegir un panel solar para su hogar.
What are the most efficient solar panels
YES We are considering the possibility of placing photovoltaic self-consumption solar panels and saving on the electricity bill, but we do not have much space to carry it out, we must install the greatest possible power to optimize energy generation with the surface area that we have . For this, it is essential that we choose the most efficient solar panels that exist on the market and in this way be able to make the most of the space available on the roof.
But not only the type of panel will determine its efficiency, but we must take into account another series of aspects. To obtain the maximum efficiency of self-consumption solar panels , it is also necessary to take care of the technical aspects and correct maintenance of the installation , and consider another series of factors such as orientation, the type of roof where it is installed, the available space, etc. . It is also essential to take into account our consumption habits before installing solar panels in the home , so that the installation is as efficient as possible based on these habits.
The higher the efficiency of the solar panels, the energy produced by them will also increase , which in turn will translate into greater savings .
What do we mean by efficiency of a solar panel
Solar panels are made up of solar cells linked together that are responsible for converting sunlight into electricity. In this way, when sunlight reaches the panels, its energy is captured and converted into electrical energy. The efficiency of a solar panel is the percentage of sunlight that reaches the panel and is converted into usable electricity.
This efficiency can be measured. For example, if the sun projects the equivalent of 1 kilowatt (kW) or 1,000 watts onto a solar panel, it converts that energy into 200 watts of electricity. In this case we say that this solar panel has an efficiency of 20%.
Based on their efficiency we distinguish between:
- Standard efficiency panels. They are the majority of current solar panels and offer an efficiency of between 17% and 18%.
- High efficiency panels . Its efficiency can range between 19% and 23%.
The efficiency of a solar panel never reaches 100% because it is limited by the type of energy produced by the sun. Current technology allows only part of the sunlight spectrum to be converted into electricity through the use of solar panels.
Factors Affecting Efficiency
The efficiency of a solar panel not only lies in the type of panel, its brand and its warranty, but it is also affected by other factors that should be taken into account.
Let’s see below what these factors are and what we must do to increase the efficiency of the solar panels of our installation and that they obtain their maximum potential.
- Solar installation materials. The energy produced by a solar panel depends largely on the materials from which it is made, being more efficient the higher its quality. But the materials of the rest of the components, such as the inverter, the wiring and the battery, are also essential for the efficiency of the installation. The efficiency of a photovoltaic installation can be reduced by up to 20% if the appropriate materials are not used.
- temperature and climate. Efficiency is also directly affected by the temperature and climate of the area where the solar panels are located. For example, very high temperatures reduce their efficiency by exceeding 25ºC (ideal temperature for the panels to obtain maximum efficiency). It should be noted that the productivity of an installation decreases by 1% for every 2ºC that the temperature increases.
Other aspects that affect the efficiency of solar panels are inclement weather, such as strong wind, since the flattened shape of solar panels makes them more vulnerable to its action.
- Solar irradiation and geographical location. Each area of our country receives a different amount of solar radiation, which directly influences the efficiency of solar panels. Solar irradiation is directly related to the inclination, shadows and climate of a given geographical area.
- Orientation and inclination. The south orientation of the solar panels is the most optimal because the perpendicular rays that are reflected on their surface increase the productivity and profitability of the photovoltaic installation.
The inclination also directly affects the efficiency of the solar panels. Depending on the geographical area in which we find ourselves, we must tilt the solar panels in such a way that they make them efficient and improve their performance.
- Season. In summer the panels receive more sunlight and therefore generate more energy and are more efficient. In winter, efficiency is reduced due to the fewer hours of sunshine per day. In addition, at this time of year, the position of the sun varies and has a less direct impact on the solar panels.
- Shades. They directly affect the efficiency of solar panels. Shadows on the panels must be avoided since the power can suffer a reduction of up to 30%.
- Dust and dirt . Any element that blocks sunlight will reduce the production of solar panels and therefore their efficiency. An accumulation of dust and dirt can cause enough blockage to negatively affect PV output. It will be necessary to always keep the solar panels clean.
Therefore, it is essential that we take into account all these factors so that in this way the installation is as efficient as possible and we obtain maximum performance by generating the greatest possible energy.
The type of solar technology used by solar panels can also influence their efficiency. For example, monocrystalline silicon panels have relatively higher efficiency than polycrystalline silicon panels . This is due to the way electrons flow through cells due to their uniform composition.
At the same time, the association of cables in a solar panel, which trap and transmit electricity, also greatly influences its efficiency.
Another case is that of bifacial solar panels that can absorb light on both sides, on the back and on the front of the panel. These offer higher power generation rates and efficiency ratings than conventional solar panels. This difference is that solar panels that have multi-junction cells can absorb various wavelengths of light, thus increasing their efficiency.