What does an isolated solar installation consist of?
What does an isolated solar installation consist of? In this article we will describe the devices that are part of a solar energy installation for your home. Photovoltaic solar installations can be of various types, depending on whether there is a connection to the network or not, but also on the place where they are going to be carried out. One of the most common installations is the isolated solar installation.
Related: What are isolated photovoltaic installations?
What does an isolated solar installation consist of?
This is used in order to provide electricity to those homes that do not have access to the electricity gridwhich is why there is no compensation for excess self-consumption —as occurs with installations connected to the network— and why it becomes necessary to use a charging battery that accumulates the energy produced so that it can be used at times when the solar panels do not receive solar radiation.
Now, these are just some of the solar components that this type of installation requires. In this article we are going to explain what are the parts for a basic isolated solar system. Read on to find out.
Solar Power Parts: Solar Panels
Panels, or solar panels, are the most recognized solar components, although they are not the only ones — far from it. Solar panels are the ones that carry out the photoelectric effect thanks to which the energy of solar radiation is converted into electricity. These panels can be of various types, both are made from silicon, although their distinction has to do with the transformation of this semiconductor mineral. These are:
- monocrystalline solar panels: The manufacturing process of these plates is slower and involves a higher cost, although the results are slightly more efficient. Its color is darker. These plates are more recommended for cold climates, with a tendency to storms or fog, since they absorb radiation better and withstand overheating less well.
- polycrystalline solar panels: These plates are faster to produce, they also heat up more quickly, although the results are slightly lower. It is cheaper and its hue is bluish. These plates are recommended for hot climates as they absorb heat faster and are less affected by overheating.
In general, The most common solar panels are polycrystalline. The latter are characterized by their nominal power or maximum power in ideal conditions.
Basic solar system: solar batteries
Solar batteries are other essential components in an isolated photovoltaic system. These are used for store the energy generated in the solar panels in order to be able to take advantage of it when there is no sunlight. Batteries vary from each other depending on the ability to store energy. This is measured in Ampere hours (Ah).
Solar Power Parts: Charge Controller
The charge controller is one of the most important solar components. Its function is that of efficiently manage the energy generated in the solar panels and that is supplied to the batteries. These components serve, therefore, to prolong the life of the battery, as well as to prevent overcharging or complete discharge. This part of the isolated photovoltaic system is sold based on the maximum current capacity that it is capable of controlling expressed in amps.
Basic solar system: power inverter
As its name suggests, the function of this solar component is to invert the current —or convert it— so that it can be used in the electrical installation of the home, factory, industrial complex… without affecting the operation of electrical appliances. The inverter is responsible for controlling and transforming the energy that comes from batteries or controllers in alternating current and low voltage —that is, 12v or 24v—. This component is dispensable in some isolated solar installations when the components connected to it can be supplied with direct current, such as some types of lighting, motors or equipment designed to work with it. Current inverters are sold on the market based on the power in Whatts, this is calculated as the voltage per current (P=VI).
Parts of solar energy: photovoltaic wiring
The wiring for solar installations is made up of a tinned electrolytic copper conductor —to improve conductivity— and double insulation —to improve weather resistance—. This component of isolated and network photovoltaic systems stands out for being Free of halogens —that is, it does not contain groups of halogen elements such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine or astatine—.
That is why the cables of photovoltaic solar systems do not emit toxic smoke that is dangerous for people in the event of metal corrosion. It must also be taken into account that the photovoltaic wiring is unipolar —unlike traditional ones— and that are not manufactured grouped in a hose. The photovoltaic wiring is usually included along with the rest of the parts that are sold, for example, in solar panels.
Basic solar system: structure of solar panels
The structure of the solar panels is used to place the solar panels and orient them with the degree and inclination necessary to take better advantage of solar radiation. We can find different types of structures for solar panels, some of the most used are: supports for flat roofs, supports for sloped roofs, supports for sheet metal roofs, solar supports for canopies and mobile solar supports.
Solar kits for isolated solar installations
Solar kits are packs that include all the necessary materials to carry out a solar installation, depending on whether it is on the network —or for self-consumption—, if it is isolated, if it is for a pool treatment plant, if it is for caravans or if it is an isolated solar pumping kit, among others. The way in which these kits are marketed varies depending on the maximum power they offer, which is influenced by the number of solar panels that are marketed and the power they generate (12v or 24v). We can find different solar kits that vary depending on the components they include and the price. In general, a solar kit usually has the plates, the inverters, the batteries, the structures and the photovoltaic wiring.