Diagrams for connecting solar panels When installing solar power plants, the question inevitably arises: how to connect solar panels and in what order to connect them to the house power supply system. Now we will analyze everything in detail.
Wiring diagram for solar panel to battery
What is a home solar panel
Solar power is a real find for cheap electricity. However, even a solar battery is quite expensive, and to organize an effective system, a considerable number of them are needed. Therefore, many decide to mount a solar panel with their own hands. To do this, you need to be able to solder a little, since all the elements of the system are assembled on tracks, and then attached to the base.
To understand if a solar station is right for your needs, you need to understand what a home solar battery is. The device itself consists of:
- solar panels
If the device is intended for home heating, the kit will also include:
- automation kit
The solar panels are 1×2 m or 1.8×1.9 m rectangles. To provide electricity to a private house with 4 residents, 8 panels (1×2 m) or 5 panels (1.8×1.9 m) are needed. Install the modules on the roof from the sunny side. The roof angle is 45° to the horizon. There are rotating solar modules. The principle of operation of a solar panel with a rotating mechanism is similar to that of a stationary one, but the panels rotate after the sun thanks to photosensitive sensors. Its cost is higher, but the efficiency reaches 40%.
The construction of standard solar cells is as follows. The photovoltaic converter consists of 2 layers of type n and p. The n layer is made of silicon and phosphorous, which leads to an excess of electrons. The p-layer is made of silicon and boron, resulting in excess positive charges (“holes”). The layers are placed between the electrodes in this order:
- anti-glare coating
- cathode (negatively charged electrode)
- thin separating layer that prevents the free passage of charged particles between layers
- anode (positively charged electrode)
Photovoltaic modules are produced with polycrystalline and monocrystalline structures. The first are distinguished by high efficiency and high cost. The latter are cheaper, but less effective. The capacity of polycrystalline is enough to light / heat the house. Monocrystallines are used to generate small portions of electricity (as a backup power source). There are flexible solar cells based on amorphous silicon. The technology is in the process of modernization, as the efficiency of an amorphous battery does not exceed 5%.
solar cell device
When planning to connect solar panels with your own hands, you need to have an idea of what elements the system consists of.
Solar panels consist of a set of photovoltaic batteries, whose main objective is to convert solar energy into electrical energy. The intensity of the system current depends on the intensity of the light: the brighter the radiation, the more current is generated.
In addition to the solar module, the device of such a power plant includes photovoltaic converters – a controller and an inverter, as well as batteries connected to them.
The main structural elements of the system are:
- Solar cell: converts sunlight into electrical energy.
- A battery is a chemical current source that stores the generated electricity.
- Charge Controller – Monitors battery voltage.
- An inverter that converts the constant electrical voltage of the battery into an alternating voltage of 220V, necessary for the operation of the lighting system and the operation of household appliances.
- Fuses installed between all elements of the system and protecting the system from short circuits.
- A set of connectors of the MC4 standard.
In addition to the main purpose of the controller – to monitor the voltage of the batteries, the device turns off certain elements as needed. If the reading at the battery terminals during the day reaches 14 volts, indicating that they are being overcharged, the controller stops charging.
At night, when the battery voltage reaches an extremely low level of 11 volts, the controller stops the power plant from working.
The scheme of the solar battery.
The solar panels are mounted in open, unshaded areas facing south, at an angle of 45° to the horizon. You can mount the panel on an automatic rotator that gradually turns toward the sun throughout the day.
The solar battery, under the influence of sunlight, generates a voltage that is supplied to the controller. In turn, the controller charges the battery, which is connected to the inverter.
A direct current is supplied to the inverter, for example, 12V, at the output of the inverter we receive an alternating current of 220V, consumers of electricity are connected to the output of the inverter: a laptop, a TV, etc.
Even a small solar power plant can power household appliances such as laptops, televisions, phone chargers, lighting lamps, and other energy-efficient appliances.
Types of photocells
The main and quite difficult task is to find and buy photovoltaic converters. They are silicon wafers that convert solar energy into electricity. Photovoltaic cells are divided into two types: monocrystalline and polycrystalline. The former are more efficient and have high efficiency – 20-25%, and the latter are only up to 20%. Polycrystalline solar cells are bright blue and less expensive. And mono can be distinguished by its shape: it is not square, but octagonal, and the price is higher.
If the soldering does not work very well, it is recommended to purchase ready-made photocells with leads to connect the solar battery with your own hands. If you are sure that you will be able to solder the elements yourself without damaging the converter, you can buy a set in which the conductors are soldered separately.
Growing crystals for solar cells on your own is quite a specific job and almost impossible to do at home. Therefore, it is better to buy ready-made solar cells.
Connection of solar panels to the network
This can be done both independently and with the help of specialists.
The correct orientation is calculated based on the geographical location of the building. For the correct placement of solar panels during their installation, you must adhere to the principles listed below.
Plexiglass cannot be used as a cover, as it overheats and because of this the contacts between the panels become unusable, and the system itself can be depressurized. The accumulator of the generated energy is a battery.
The load is then removed and the plywood and mat are removed. Of course, if you use a mobile photo battery to recharge your smartphone on a multi-day hike, this technology is not necessary. If the insolation allows it, you can install a solar panel on the outside of the balcony.
Since they are sold as corners, you will need to assemble them yourself. Do-it-yourself installation Knowing how to connect a solar panel to your home’s power supply can save you money on installers. If you are sure that you will be able to solder the elements yourself without damaging the converter, you can buy a set in which the conductors are soldered separately.
Consider three connection methods that will be applicable for self-assembly of modules from solar cells. After the initial investment, the received electricity is conditionally free, some funds are required for maintenance at the end of the service life. Since they are sold as corners, you will need to assemble them yourself. In conclusion, it should be noted that our planet will receive the most benefit from the use of solar panels, since this source of energy does absolutely no harm to the environment.
Installation of the structure First of all, you need to decide on the place of installation – either directly on the ceiling or using a frame made of special trusses as a support. Monitors the battery voltage: when the battery is recharged during the day to 14 Volts at the terminals, it automatically turns off the load, and at night, in case of discharge, that is, an extremely low voltage of 11 Volts, it stops . the operation of the power plant. Where is the best place to install the panels? With the same characteristics, the next type of panels – thin film – will require a larger area for installation in the house. If this problem cannot be solved, it is better to install the panels not on the roof, but on separate poles in the yard.
Reduce gas and electricity consumption in your home thanks to the use of solar panels. How to connect a solar battery How to connect a solar battery The question of how to connect a solar battery is solved with the help of the complete system of elements. Diagram of connection of solar panels to the instrument panel.
There are no questions when connecting a panel – less and more are connected to the corresponding connectors on the controller. If there are many panels, they can be connected:
- in parallel, i.e. we connect the terminals of the same name and, having received a voltage of 12V at the output;
- sequentially, i.e. connect the plus of the first with the minus of the second, and the remaining minus of the first and plus of the second, to the controller. The output will be 24V.
- series-parallel, ie use a mixed connection. Such a scheme implies that several groups of batteries are interconnected. Inside each of them, the panels are connected in parallel, and the groups are connected in series. This output circuit provides the most optimal performance.
To understand in more detail the connection of alternative sources in the house, the video will help:
Such power plants with the help of rechargeable batteries accumulate the charge of the Sun for the house and store it, reserving it in battery banks. In America, Japan, European countries, hybrid power supply is often used.
That is, two circuits work, one of which serves low-voltage equipment powered by 12 V, the other circuit is responsible for the uninterrupted supply of power to high-voltage equipment operating from 230 V.
How to connect solar panels to the maximum using the capabilities of all elements
Mixed backup connection scheme. They will depend on the dimensions of the panels themselves and their number.
Now there is little left to do.
With the same characteristics, the next type of panels – thin film – will require a larger area for installation in the house. Of course, at your own peril and risk, you can connect the panel directly and the battery will charge, but such a system must be supervised.
If the house is in the shade of other buildings, then it is advisable to install solar panels unless they are only polycrystalline, and then the efficiency will be reduced. In all cases, there should be no darkening. Natural blowing of the battery will help solve this problem. All these factors must be taken into account when choosing an installation site and installing panels according to the most convenient option.
Of course, at your own peril and risk, you can connect the panel directly and the battery will charge, but such a system must be supervised. This is interesting: many of the standard radio components can also generate electricity when exposed to bright light.
At this stage, it is important not to confuse the back of the panel with the front. This is the most important point, since its productivity, and therefore the amount of electricity generated, will depend on whether the panels are shaded by other buildings or trees.
When multiple panels are connected in series, the voltage from all panels will add together. The frame is assembled using bolts with a diameter of 6 and 8 mm. In this case, there will be no voltage change.
A mixed connection scheme is often used. It turns out that correctly installed solar panels will work with the same performance both in winter and in summer, but under one condition: in clear weather, when the sun emits the maximum amount of heat. It is recommended to mount the photocells on the long side to avoid damage, choosing the method individually: the screws are fastened through the holes in the frame, clamps, etc. It can be fixed with a thin layer of silicone sealant, but it is better not to use epoxy for these purposes, since it will be extremely difficult to remove the glass in case of repair work and not damage the panels.
Solar panels. How to make a cheap and efficient solar power plant.
Diagram of a solar power plant
Consider how the solar system for a country house is organized and works. Its main purpose is to convert the sun’s energy into 220 V electricity, which is the main source of energy for household appliances.
The main parts that make up the SES:
- Batteries (panels) that convert solar radiation into DC voltage.
- Controller that regulates the battery charge.
- Battery pack.
- An inverter that converts the battery voltage to 220 V.
The battery design is thought out in such a way that it allows the equipment to work in various climatic conditions, at temperatures from -35 ° C to + 80 ° C.
It turns out that correctly installed panels will work with the same performance both in winter and in summer, but under one condition – in clear weather, when the sun emits the maximum amount of heat. In cloudy work, efficiency is drastically reduced.
The efficiency of SPP in mid-latitudes is excellent, but not good enough to power large houses. Most often, the solar system is considered an additional or backup source of electricity.
The weight of a 300 W battery is 20 kg. Most often, the panels are mounted on the roof, facade, or on special racks installed next to the house. Prerequisites: a turn of the plane towards the sun and an optimal tilt (on average 45 ° to the earth’s surface), which ensures the perpendicular incidence of the sun’s rays.
If possible, a tracker is installed that tracks the movement of the sun and adjusts the position of the panels.
The top surface of the batteries is protected by impact-resistant tempered glass, which easily withstands hail or heavy snow drifts. However, it is necessary to monitor the integrity of the coating; otherwise the damaged silicon wafers (photocells) will stop working.
The controller performs several functions. In addition to the main one, the automatic regulation of the battery charge, controls the power supply of the solar panels, thus protecting the battery from deep discharge. When fully charged, the controller automatically disconnects the battery from the system. Modern devices are equipped with a control panel with a display that shows the battery voltage.
For home solar systems, the best option is gel batteries, which have a continuous lifespan of 10 to 12 years. After 10 years of operation, its capacity decreases by about 15-25%. These are maintenance-free and absolutely safe devices that do not emit harmful substances. In winter or cloudy weather, the panels also continue to work (if they are regularly cleared of snow), but the energy output is reduced by 5-10 times.
The task of the inverters is to convert the DC voltage of the battery into an AC voltage of 220 V. They differ in technical characteristics such as power and the quality of the received voltage. Sinus equipment is capable of servicing the most “whimsical” devices in terms of current quality: compressors, consumer electronics.
Overview of SPP for the home:
It is estimated that about 1 kW of solar energy falls on 1 m² of the planet’s surface, and 1 m² of solar cells converts about 160-200 watts. Accordingly, the efficiency is 16-20%. With the right device, this is enough to supply electricity to all the energy-saving appliances in the house.
The controller displays the battery charge in percentage terms. If the 24 volt kit shows a 27 volt battery charge then it is 100% full.
A pair of powerful 200 Ah gel batteries (nominal power 4.8 kW). This is a day of operation of household appliances with uninterrupted consumption of 180-200 watts. Energy storage devices are frost resistant, meaning they can be installed in the attic, and since they are safe, they can also be installed next to dwellings.
The digital screen of an inverter usually shows two parameters: the power consumed and the total voltage of the electrical system. An additional charger option allows you to connect an electric generator and quickly charge the battery (if there is no sun)
Solar panels – batteries with photovoltaic cells
Controller to regulate battery charge
gel battery pack
Inverter – voltage converter to 220 V
It is worth knowing that home power plants are capable of servicing a constantly working refrigerator, a periodically turned on submersible pump, a TV and a lighting system. To provide power for the operation of a boiler or even a microwave oven, more powerful and very expensive equipment will be required.
The simplest schematic of a solar power plant, including the main components. Each of them performs its function, without which the work of the SES is impossible.
There are other more complex schemes, but this solution is universal and the most demanded in everyday life.
Panel connection stages to SES equipment
Solar panel connection is a step-by-step process that can be done in different orders. Usually the modules are connected to each other, then a set of equipment and batteries is assembled, after which the panels are connected to the devices. This is a convenient and safe option that allows you to check the correct connection of all elements before powering up. Let’s take a closer look at these stages:
to the battery
Let’s find out how to connect a solar battery to a battery.
Attention! First of all, it is necessary to clarify: they do not use the direct connection of the panels to the battery. Uncontrolled power generation is dangerous for batteries and can lead to both excessive consumption and excessive load. Both of these situations are fatal as they can permanently disable the battery.
Therefore, between the photovoltaic cells and the batteries, a controller must be installed, which provides a regular mode of charging and power output. In addition, an inverter is usually installed at the output of the controller to be able to convert the stored energy into a standard voltage of 220 V 50 Hz. This is the most successful and efficient scheme, which allows the batteries to give or receive a charge in the mode optimum and do not exceed its capacity.
Before connecting the solar panel to the battery, it is necessary to check the parameters of all system components and make sure they match. Failure to do so could result in the loss of one or more instruments.
A simplified scheme is sometimes used to connect modules without a controller. This option is used in conditions where the current from the panels will certainly not be able to overcharge the batteries. Usually this method is used:
- in regions with few daylight hours
- low position of the sun above the horizon
- Low power solar panels that cannot provide excess battery charging.
When using this method, it is necessary to secure the complex by installing a protective diode. It is placed as close as possible to the batteries and protects them from short circuits. It is not scary for the panels, but for the battery it is very dangerous. Also, if the wires melt, it can start a fire, posing a danger to the whole house and people. Therefore, providing reliable protection is the main task of the owner, the solution of which must be completed before the kit is put into operation.
The second method is often used by owners of country or private houses to create a low-voltage lighting network. They buy a cheap controller and connect solar panels to it. The device is compact, comparable in size to a medium-sized book. It is equipped with three pairs of pins on the front panel. Solar modules are connected to the first pair of contacts, a battery is connected to the other, and lighting or other low-voltage energy-saving devices are connected to the third pair.
First, the first pair of terminals is supplied with a voltage of 12 or 24 V from the batteries. This is a test step, it is necessary to determine the operability of the controller. If the device has correctly determined the amount of battery charge, proceed to connection.
Important! The solar modules are connected to the second (middle) pair of contacts. It is important not to reverse the polarity, otherwise the system will not work.
Low voltage lamps or other consumer devices powered by 12 (24) V DC are connected to the third pair of contacts. You cannot connect such a kit with anything else. If you need to provide power to household appliances, you need to assemble a fully functional set of equipment – a private SES.
to the investor
Let’s take a look at how to connect a solar panel to an inverter.
It is used only to power standard consumers that require 220 VAC. The specificity of the use of the device is such that it must be connected in the last turn, between the battery and the final energy consumers.
The process itself is not difficult. The inverter comes with two wires, usually black and red (“-” and “+”). There is a special plug at one end of each cable and at the other end there is an alligator clip to connect to the battery terminals. The cables connect to the inverter according to the color indication, and then connect to the battery.
How to connect solar panels?
The scheme for connecting solar panels for a trained person does not present any notable difficulties, but for inexperienced users some clarification is needed. You need to know how solar panels are connected to each other, how solar panels are connected to the rest of devices included in the kit. There are different connection options used to obtain specific output voltage and current parameters.
The scheme for connecting solar panels of a country house is a system for connecting all components, which, in turn, are also connected to each other in a certain way. For example, you need to know how to connect solar panels, in parallel or in series. In addition, it is necessary to choose one or another method of connecting the batteries to the battery.
Diagram of a solar power plant
Before connecting a solar panel, you must know its configuration. The solar power plant, in addition to solar modules, includes a set of equipment, which includes the following devices and devices:
- charge controller
- rechargeable batteries (accumulators)
- switching devices, fuses
The controller performs dispatch functions, switching the system to battery charging mode or to supply power to consumers. Batteries receive charge and store it, releasing energy as needed. If the battery voltage reaches 14V, the controller will stop the process; otherwise the batteries will be damaged by overcharging. An inverter is a device that converts direct current to alternating current and raises the voltage to standard values.
As a rule, the entire kit is used in its entirety. However, there are other simplified configuration options. In some cases, DC-powered consumers are connected directly to the modules. This is possible only during the day, therefore it is only found in specialized devices.
There are also solar-powered lighting systems that do not require inverters and are powered directly by batteries. Sometimes the inverter is excluded from the kit if the charging voltage does not exceed 12V DC. This option is also not common and is used whenever possible.
Panel welding and assembly
To power consumers, a certain number of modules are used, which are connected in one order or another. First, a connection diagram for solar panels is developed, which allows you to get maximum efficiency from them.
Parallel or sequential?
Normally, a panel has a voltage of 12 V and a power of 1.5 to 4.5 W, depending on the size and number of photovoltaic cells.
- Connecting in parallel will increase the amperage (and power) while keeping the voltage constant.
- Daisy chaining solar panels will increase the voltage to 24V if you connect 2 modules. They don’t anymore as there are only 2 valid options for batteries, either 12 or 24V.
Therefore, it is necessary to combine, ensuring that the scheme for connecting the solar battery to the battery gives the most successful result.
Also, you should have a clear idea of how to connect the solar panels to each other. All modules are equipped with a dedicated contact compartment located on the rear. It has a very simple design: two threaded clamps marked with the signs “+” and “-“. Welding as such is not necessary, since the installation is carried out in difficult conditions, where it is not always possible to work with a welder. However, if it is possible to make the contact more reliable and protect it from oxidation, there are no contraindications.
For connection, a single-core copper cable with a cross section of 4 mm2 is usually used. It is important that your insulation is UV resistant. If this is not the case, the cables are placed in a corrugated protective sleeve.
When making the connection, take into account the position of the modules. If they are rotated at the same angle to the sun, then they will all work in the same mode. However, sometimes it is necessary to install multidirectional panels. This may be due to a special roof structure or the desire to provide a more even power supply throughout the day.
Important! It must be taken into account that a more illuminated module will produce a maximum current, which will be partially consumed to heat less loaded aircraft. To eliminate this effect, cut-off diodes are used, which are soldered between the plates from the inside.
The payback period for solar panels is easy to calculate. Multiply the daily amount of energy produced per day by the number of days per year and by the useful life of the panels without derating: 30 years. The electrical installation considered above is capable of generating an average of 52 to 100 kWh per day, depending on the length of daylight hours. The average value is about 64 kWh. Thus, in 30 years, the plant, in theory, should generate 700 thousand kWh. With a rate of one part of 3.87 rubles. and the cost of one panel is about 15,000 rubles, the costs will pay for themselves in 4-5 years. But the reality is more prosaic.
The fact is that the December values of solar radiation are less than the annual average by about an order of magnitude. Therefore, the fully autonomous operation of the power plant in winter requires 7 to 8 times more panels than in summer. This significantly increases the investment, but reduces the payback period. The prospect of introducing a “green tariff” looks quite encouraging, but even today it is possible to conclude an agreement for the supply of electricity to the grid at a wholesale price three times lower than the retail tariff. And even this is enough to profitably sell 7-8 times the excess electricity generated in the summer.